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To ask a higher court to reverse the decision of a trial court after final judgment or other legal ruling.


The hearing in which a person charged with a crime is arraigned in his or her first appearance before a judge. 

Articles of Incorporation 

The basic charter of a corporation which spells out the name, basic purpose, incorporators, amount and types of stock which may be issued, and any special characteristics such as being non-profit. 


Legal responsibility for one's acts or omissions.


Any lawsuit or other resort to the courts to determine a legal question or matter.


The attempt to settle a legal dispute through active participation of a third party (mediator) who works to find points of agreement and make those in conflict agree on a fair result.


A general term for the entire process of administration of estates of dead persons, including those without wills, with court supervision. 


Returning to the proper owner property or the monetary value of loss. 


The official delivery of legal documents ("service of process").


An order of the court for a witness to appear at a particular time and place to testify and/or produce documents in the control of the witness (if a "subpena duces tecum").


a document issued by the court at the time a lawsuit is filed, stating the name of both plaintiff and defendant, the title and file number of the case, the court and its address, the name and address of the plaintiff's attorney, and instructions as to the need to file a response to the complaint within a certain time.


From French for "wrong," a civil wrong or wrongful act, whether intentional or accidental, from which injury occurs to another.

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